Copper Price 6/24/2024 4.4790


Construction/ Commercial

  • Commercial construction is the business of building and selling or leasing manufacturing or assembly plants, medical centers, retail shopping centers, and standard space for offices. The business varies primarily in the size and scale of the operations. Typically, the commercial builder either contracts with a company or organization to build the facility or builds the facility on speculation that it can be leased or sold at a later time.
  • Commercial construction infrastructure lays out a matrix of electrical, plumbing and HVAC systems that service the entire building with connections directed to various offices, retail space and public areas. While centralized, the network is designed to operate according to tenant needs
  • General construction is an umbrella term used to describe a variety of construction projects or jobs. This includes designs, builds, renovations, and remodels. General construction can also be broken down into residential, state, federal, and commercial construction. Residential construction is comprised of single and multi-family homes. State and federal construction encompasses building on state or federally-owned land. But what is commercial construction?

Commercial construction is the business of building and leasing or selling spaces in the private sector. These spaces can include but aren’t limited to offices, manufacturing plants, medical centers, and retail shopping centers. Commercial construction projects and businesses primarily vary in size and scale.

  • Commercial construction deals with building and letting of apartments, either medical or shopping center, available spaces used for office services and more. Majority of the construction of a new business takes place due to bidding. Planner’s design is given out as tender; various participants submit their bids and one with a good charge and plan is given the construction project. Commercial building is demanded because of the increasing number of people at a specific place and their involvement in business demands for more construction.
  • The institutional and commercial sector includes the construction of buildings, including facilities and equipment physically attached to these buildings or not, used mainly for institutional and commercial purposes, as well as all structures that cannot be included in the residential, industrial, and civil engineering and roads sectors.


  • Residential construction is the business of building and selling individual and multi-family dewellings. The market fragments into single-unit, manufactured, duplex, quad-plex, and apartments and condominiums. Manufactured housing further divides into mobile homes and pre-built houses. The business varies primarily in the size and scale of the operations. In the simplist form, a builder buys a peice of land, develops the land by clearing and grading it, and constructing roads, sidewalks, drainage, waste removal, electrical and water supplies. Then the builder offers to build either custom homes or pre-designed homes, or pre-manufactured homes, depending on the market he is attempting to serve. In certain instance the builder may build one or more homes on speculation or "spec" meaning that he builds the home without having a ready buyer on the hope that once the house is built, a buyer will appear.



Broadcast/ Communications/ AV

  • The broadcasting industry consists of radio and television stations and networks that create content or acquire the right to broadcast prerecorded television and radio programs. Networks transmit their signals from broadcasting studios via satellite signals to local stations or cable distributors. Broadcast signals then travel over cable television lines, satellite distribution systems, or the airwaves from a station's transmission tower to the antennas of televisions and radios. Anyone in the signal area with a radio or television can receive the programming. Cable and other pay television distributors provide television broadcasts to most Americans. Although cable television stations and networks are included in this statement, cable and other pay television distributors are classified in the telecommunications industry. (See the statement on telecommunications.)

Radio and television stations and networks broadcast a variety of programs, such as national and local news, talk shows, music programs, movies, other entertainment, and advertisements. Stations produce some of these programs, most notably news programs, in their own studios; however, much of the programming is produced outside the broadcasting industry. Revenue for commercial radio and television stations and networks comes from the sale of advertising time. The rates paid by advertisers depend on the size and characteristics (age, gender, and median income, among others) of a program's audience. Educational and noncommercial stations generate revenue primarily from donations by individuals, foundations, government, and corporations. These stations generally are owned and managed by public broadcasting organizations, religious institutions, or school systems.

  • The Broadcasting sector includes establishments that create content or acquire the right to distribute content and subsequently broadcast the content. The industry groups (Radio and Television Broadcasting and Cable and Other Subscription Programming) are based on differences in the methods of communication and the nature of services provided. The Radio and Television Broadcasting industry group includes establishments that operate broadcasting studios and facilities for over the air or satellite delivery of radio and television programs of entertainment, news, talk, and the like. These establishments are often engaged in the production and purchase of programs and generating revenues from the sale of air time to advertisers and from donations, subsidies, and/or the sale of programs. The Cable and Other Subscription Programming industry group includes establishments operating studios and facilities for the broadcasting of programs that are typically narrowcast in nature (limited format, such as news, sports, education, and youth-oriented programming) on a subscription or fee basis. The distribution of cable and other subscription programming is included in the Telecommunications sector. Establishments that broadcast exclusively on the Internet are included in the Internet Publishing and Service Providers sector.
  • communications industry, broadly defined, the business of conveying information. Although communication by means of symbols and gestures dates to the beginning of human history, the term generally refers to mass communications. As such, it covers television and radio broadcasting, telegraphs, publishing, advertising, telecommunications, motion pictures, home videos, public relations, computer databases, and other information industries.
  • COMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY in the United States is best understood as a rapidly changing industrial sector that is engaged in the production and distribution of content designed to inform and entertain. When characterized more generally as the "core copyright industries," this industry is estimated to have contributed more than $457 billion to the U.S. economy in 1999.
  • Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many[1][2]Broadcasting began with AM radio, which came into popular use around 1920 with the spread of vacuum tube radio transmitters and receivers. Before this, all forms of electronic communication (early radio, telephone, and telegraph) were one-to-one, with the message intended for a single recipient. The term broadcasting evolved from its use as the agricultural method of sowing seeds in a field by casting them broadly about.[3] It was later adopted for describing the widespread distribution of information by printed materials[4] or by telegraph.[5]Examples applying it to "one-to-many" radio transmissions of an individual station to multiple listeners appeared as early as 1898.[6]
  • Broadcasting, electronic transmission of radio and television signals that are intended for general public reception, as distinguished from private signals that are directed to specific receivers. In its most common form, broadcasting may be described as the systematic dissemination of entertainment, information, educational programming, and other features for simultaneous reception by a scattered audience with appropriate receiving apparatus. Broadcasts may be audible only, as in radio, or visual or a combination of both, as in television. Sound broadcasting in this sense may be said to have started about 1920, while television broadcasting began in the 1930s. With the advent of cable television in the early 1950s and the use of satellites for broadcasting beginning in the early 1960s, television reception improved and the number of programs receivable increased dramatically.
  • Audiovisual (AV) means possessing both a sound and a visual component, such as slide-tape presentations,[1] films, television programs, church services and live theater productions. Audiovisual service providers frequently offer web streaming, video conferencing and live broadcast services.[2] Computer-based audiovisual equipment is often used in education, with many schools and universities installing projection equipment and using interactive whiteboard technology. Another audiovisual expression is the visual presentation of sound (visual music).


  • Smart lighting market has been segmented on the basis of component, product type, light source, communication technology and application. The communication technology segment is bifurcated into wired and wireless communication technology. Out of which, the wired communication technology segment is expected to hold the largest market share of smart lighting market whereas, wireless communication technology segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period. This is owing to the increasing popularity of internet of things and growing demand for connected things. This replacement of wired with wireless will also avoid the hassle of laying wires and improve flexibility.

Smart lighting market is estimated to exhibit high growth potential during the forecast period owing to increasing development of smart cities. Major driving factor in the growth of smart lighting market is the growing need for energy efficient solutions and smart lighting solutions for the same. Increasing advancements in technology is another major factor responsible for the growth of smart lighting market. Increased demand for intelligent street lighting solutions is one major factor responsible for fueling the growth of smart lighting market.

Giants like Philips Lighting (Netherlands), Acuity Brands Lighting, Inc. (U.S.), General Electric Company (U.S.), OSRAM Licht AG (Germany) and Honeywell International (U.S.) are the major players in the smart lighting market. Philips Lighting has come up with new solutions for smart lighting by embedding ZigBee communication chips inside the LED ceiling lights and luminaries which will help in reducing the energy consumption by controlling the lighting in an intelligent manner. Pre-programmed sensors are already fit into it and can be directly controlled with the help of ZigBee from any phone or tablets. The company focusses on offering innovative solutions and keeps up with the fast pace of the technological advancements. Smart lighting market is expected to witness significant growth with the growing development of smart cities and increasing demand for cost effective solutions in order to improve overall productivity.

  • It’s cliché in the lighting industry to state that there has been a light bulb moment, however the evolution of light bulbs from cheap incandescent bulbs to affordable LED lighting solutions has had a massive impact on the lighting industry as a whole and the trend is set to continue. For businesses, it brings lucrative opportunities while playing to the card of sustainability for corporate responsibility. Demands for sustainable solutions and lower energy prices have made LED lights become the lighting commodity of choice. As LED light bulbs and their energy consumption costs fall, a sharp rise in demand is expected across the residential and commercial markets. This has created a chasm in the lighting market which lighting retailers and manufacturers are keen to exploit over the coming years.
  • The $112 billion global lighting market is undergoing a rapid transformation driven by technological change—and the rules of the game continue to change for players across the industry.The upheaval stems from two powerful shifts: the move toward light-emitting-diode (LED) lighting and the growing adoption of connected lighting systems. These trends, which reinforce one another, are fundamentally altering the underlying economics and dynamics of the market. The result: companies across the complex lighting ecosystem must evaluate where they can compete effectively amid the changes and adopt new strategies to win in the future.


  • Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.[2] Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.[3]
  • Based on REN21's 2017 report, renewables contributed 19.3% to humans' global energy consumption and 24.5% to their generation of electricity in 2015 and 2016, respectively. This energy consumption is divided as 8.9% coming from traditional biomass, 4.2% as heat energy (modern biomass, geothermal and solar heat), 3.9% hydro electricity and 2.2% is electricity from wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. Worldwide investments in renewable technologies amounted to more than US$286 billion in 2015, with countries like China and the United States heavily investing in wind, hydro, solar and biofuels.[4]Globally, there are an estimated 7.7 million jobs associated with the renewable energy industries, with solar photovoltaics being the largest renewable employer.[5] As of 2015 worldwide, more than half of all new electricity capacity installed was renewable.[6]
  • The renewable-energy industry is the part of the energy industry focusing on new and appropriate renewable energy Investors worldwide have paid greater attention to this emerging industry in recent years. In many cases, this has translated into rapid renewable energy commercialization and considerable industry expansion. The wind powerand solar photovoltaics (PV) industries provide good examples of this.
  • Renewable energy, often referred to as clean energy, comes from natural sources or processes that are constantly replenished. For example, sunlight or wind keep shining and blowing, even if their availability depends on time and weather. While renewable energy is often thought of as a new technology, harnessing nature’s power has long been used for heating, transportation, lighting, and more. Wind has powered boats to sail the seas and windmills to grind grain. The sun has provided warmth during the day and helped kindle fires to last into the evening. But over the past 500 years or so, humans increasingly turned to cheaper, dirtier energy sources such as coal and fracked gas. Now that we have increasingly innovative and less-expensive ways to capture and retain wind and solar energy, renewables are becoming a more important power source, accounting for more than one-eighth of U.S. generation. The expansion in renewables is also happening at scales large and small, from rooftop solar panels on homes that can sell power back to the grid to giant offshore wind farms. Even some entire rural communities rely on renewable energy for heating and lighting. As renewable use continues to grow, a key goal will be to modernize America’s electricity grid, making it smarter, more secure, and better integrated across regions.
  • Put simply, renewable energies are those generated from sources that do not have a finite end, or those that can be recycled (1), typically from natural sources - like solar power, wind power and water power. These are the examples that we think about most when we hear the term “renewable energy” but they are not the only sources.
  • Renewable energy is energy derived from natural processes that are replenished at a rate that is equal to or faster than the rate at which they are consumed. There are various forms of renewable energy, deriving directly or indirectly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. They include energy generated from solar, wind, geothermal, hydropower and ocean resources, solid biomass, biogas and liquid biofuels. Biomass, however, is a renewable resource only if its rate of consumption does not exceed its rate of regeneration.
  • Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, flowing water, biological processes, and geothermal heat flows.

The most common definition is that renewable energy is from an energy resource that is replaced rapidly by a natural process such as power generated from the sun or from the wind. Most renewable forms of energy, other than geothermal and tidal power, ultimately come from the Sun. Some forms are stored solar energy such as rainfall and wind power which are considered short-term solar-energy storage, whereas the energy in biomass is accumulated over a period of months, as in straw, or through many years as in wood. Capturing renewable energy by plants, animals and humans does not permanently deplete the resource. Fossil fuels, while theoretically renewable on a very long time-scale, are exploited at rates that may deplete these resources in the near future. Renewable energy resources may be used directly, or used to create other more convenient forms of energy. Examples of direct use are solar ovens, geothermal heating, and water- and windmills. Examples of indirect use which require energy harvesting are electricity generation through wind turbines or photovoltaic cells, or production of fuels such as ethanol from biomass.


Industrial/ MRO

  • MRO (maintenance, repair and operating supply) items are used in production and plant maintenance and can be items such as maintenance supplies, spare parts, and consumables used in the production process.
  • These items can be either valuated or non-valuated and depending on the value of the items, no physical inventory is performed.
  • Many sourcing and procurement professionals find MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Operational Expenses) one of the most complex categories of spend to source. The reason for the difficulty in sourcing this category starts with simply defining what the category is. A plant manager will usually define MRO as anything that is not a raw material or labor cost. A finance person of procurement manager would surely take issue with that, segmenting out MRO as something different than administrative expenses or shared services.
  • Regardless of what you categorize as MRO, the ultimate need you are looking to satisfy remains the same - it includes any of the “stuff” you buy to keep your plant running in a safe, efficient, and effective manner. The easiest way to figure this out is by looking at the catalogs and line cards of the major suppliers in the industry and understanding what they sell. This typically includes electrical supplies and components, bearings and power transmission products, fasteners, lubricants, filters, pipe valve and fittings, motors, safety supplies, machine parts, and even cleaning products. Depending on your industry, you may add or subtract from this list.
  • Adding to the complexity of the category, MRO products tend to span across multiple business units with spend falling under the purview of many different stakeholders. Some supplies relate to the prevention of safety hazards. Others are associated with providing a comfortable working environment for employees. Another portion relates to making sure there is very little disruption to actual production.
  • MRO or maintenance, repairs, and operations are the pieces of equipment that organizations use to produce their end products. The term MRO is very broadly defined and can encapsulate millions of different skus which can be sourced from thousands of different suppliers. There are thousands of MRO categories and subcategories like cleaning supplies, lab supplies, office supplies, industrial equipment, fixtures, and adhesives which help to create the MRO industry.
  • Because “MRO” can cover such a large variety of products, it can be difficult to define which products fall under the MRO scope.Organizations may classify MRO products under sub categories like janitorial supplies, office supplies, and lab supplies, but they can also be considered MRO.
  • Many times, an MRO program is not run by a centralized business unit. Having a managed MRO program through your supply chain department allows for company operations to run smoothly and helps to increase spend efficiency opportunities. It is important for organizations to stay current in MRO:

Industrial Robotics

  • What is industrial robotics? A simple definition is: a programmable, mechanical device used in place of a person to perform dangerous or repetitive tasks with a high degree of accuracy.

That simple definition however, opens up the huge world of robotics, from large, intricate systems to the small parts, cables, guarding, grippers, and components that make up these machines.

Robotics Online strives to bring that world into focus by providing not just information and resources, but software programming, training, and recommendations for the best companies to help you determine low cost solutions, design your system, or even provide retrofitting of used systems for your application.

  • The new technological developments are making manufacturingindustry smarter in terms of efficiency with minimizing defect, waste and downtime. In order to overcome the limitations of traditional labour work in industries and enhance the capability of operators, industrial robotics has been evolved. Installation of industrial robots also helps to gain competitive advantage by making business process more dynamic. As defined by ISO 8373 standards the industrial robot is “an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes”. Today, the Industrial robots are increasingly being installed in various industry such as food and packaging, automobile, electronics etc.
  • The global industrial robotics market is experiencing the robust growth with numerous untapped opportunity. In 2013, the global industrial robotics market registered around 12% to 15% year on year growth which is expected to grow at same pace for the forecast period. The factors driving the growth of global industrial robotics market are growing automation to meet production demand, need for meeting the technology standard set by government and industry associations and, increasing production capacity to anticipate the future demand. The use of industrial robotics helps to achieve automation in manufacturing process which is the major trend in global industrial robotics market.
  • The industrial robotics market is segmented on the basis industry which are automotive industry, chemical, rubber and plastics industry, electrical & electronics industry metal and machinery industry, pharmaceutical industry,food and beverages industry, and construction industry, among others. The global industrial robotics market dominates in automotive industry followed by electrical and electronics industry, food and beverages industry, pharmaceutical industry respectively. Growing demand for vehicles across the globe is the major factor to drive demand in automotive industry segment of the global industrial robotics market. The growth in demand of industrial robotics in the electrical and electronics industry segment of the global industrial robotics market is likely to spur by various factors such as growing demand for consumer electronics products, increasing number of mobile shipments, etc.
  • An industrial robot is an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes.
  • The field of industrial robotics may be more practically defined as the study, design and use of robot systems for manufacturing (a top-level definition relying on the prior definition of robot).

Typical applications of industrial robots include welding, painting, ironing, assembly, pick and place, palletizing, product inspection, and testing, all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision.

The most commonly used robot configurations for industrial automation, include articulated robots, SCARA robots and gantry robots.

In the context of general robotics, most types of industrial robots would fall into the category of robot arms.

  • Because they can be programmed to perform dangerous, dirty and/or repetitive tasks with consistent precision and accuracy, industrial robots are increasingly used in a variety of industries and applications. They come in a wide range of models with the reach distance, payload capacity and the number of axes of travel (up to six) of their jointed arm being the most common distinguishing characteristics. In both production and handling applications, a robot utilizes an end effector or end of arm tooling (EOAT) attachment to hold and manipulate either the tool performing the process, or the piece upon which a process is being performed. The robot’s actions are directed by a combination of programming software and controls. Their automated functionality allows them to operate around the clock and on weekends—as well as with hazardous materials and in challenging environments—freeing personnel to perform other tasks. Robotic technology also increases productivity and profitability while eliminating labor-intensive activities that might cause physical strain or potential injury to workers.


  • The Power Industry is the backbone of the industrial world, supplying essential energy to industrial, manufacturing, commercial and residential customers around the globe. In developed economies with mature power markets, investment is driven by transition of fuel and energy sources, increased environmental legislation and an ever-aging generation fleet and transmission/distribution infrastructure. In contrast, developing economies continue to expand their power bases to meet growing demand for electricity-starved regions. For these reasons, the Power Industry continues to have the largest investments and number of projects in the industrial world.

Industrial Info offers the most extensive market intelligence for the Power Industry, providing timely and accurate information. Our global research teams identify and constantly update key details regarding project spending in the industry as well as pre-commissioned, commissioned and decommissioned plants around the world. In addition to identifying and tracking important information on capital and maintenance project events, we also provide vital details on equipment in existing power stations. This includes information for the generation and T&D sectors as well as emerging segments such as battery storage and micro-grids.

  • Utilities are those companies that build and maintain the infrastructure needed to provide electricity, gas, and water, or to manage wastewater and sewage; they also provide the related service that utilizes that infrastructure. Utility services are fundamental to modern society.
  • Across the globe, energy is generated or produced every second of the day, and it is the work of energy utility companies to distribute it in the form of electricity to homes and businesses. Most utility companies provide either electric power or natural gas for heating and cooking although some provide both. Many companies generate the power, as well as distribute it. Some companies act as brokers and sell energy produced by one company to another company or a large manufacturing client. The utility industry’s primary goal is to meet the power and energy demands of their clients, anticipate the highs and lows of demand, and to provide energy as efficiently and affordably as possible. Water and sewage utilities are responsible for providing a clean source of water to residences as well as commercial and industrial structures and for removing and treating sewage and wastewater.
  • In addition to attaining these overarching goals, utilities must also provide customer service. Customers who move to a new home or apartment must close their utility accounts at one address and open a new account for the new home. Some customers may move out of the service territory, build a new home that has no power or water lines already available, have questions about their bills or want to make payment arrangements, or need conservation tips and advice. Utility companies provide all these services. In addition, they are responsible for restoring service in the event of an outage if severe weather or an accident damages power, gas, or water lines. Gas utilities are responsible for inspecting gas lines and ensuring their safety. Utility companies also build new services and must replace existing poles and lines when they wear out. It is a lot of work, and it takes thousands of employees working in offices and in the field to keep the utility industry running smoothly.
  • In general, there are three types of utility companies: for-profit companies, city-owned companies, and rural cooperatives. When it comes to natural gas, there are fewer city- or public-owned utility companies. Most gas companies are for-profit. Rural electric cooperatives provide electric service to large rural regions that are often outside the service area of a city’s or for-profit market. Most water utilities are overseen or operated by local governments.
  • Utility companies are regulated by local Public Utility Commissions (PUC). These local agencies serve as buffers between consumers and utility companies. Public Utility Commissions developed when large utility companies formed essentially as monopolies. As an electric utility company offered service to a city, for example, it built the infrastructure to serve those clients, and it was impractical for a competing company to set up electric poles next to existing ones. This kept competition out of the market, and there was nothing to prevent these companies from charging as much as they pleased for electricity. PUCs formed to regulate them. For instance, in order to hike rates, a utility company must apply to their state-owned PUC for approval and justify the increase. The PUCs also regulate other utility operations policies, such as when a company may turn off a delinquent customer’s power. In most U.S. cities that experience freezing temperatures in the winter, if the temperature slips below a specified temperature (usually 20 degrees Fahrenheit), disconnections are not allowed. In the 1990s, governments sought to begin deregulating the utility industry, but PUCs and most of their regulations are still in place.
  • The electric power industry covers the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electric power to the general public and industry. The commercial distribution of electric power started in 1882 when electricity was produced for electric lighting. In the 1880s and 1890s, growing economic and safety concerns lead to the regulation of the industry. Once an expensive novelty limited to the most densely populated areas, reliable and economical electric power has become an essential aspect for normal operation of all elements of developed economies.
  • By the middle of the 20th century, electricity was seen as a "natural monopoly", only efficient if a restricted number of organizations participated in the market; in some areas, vertically-integrated companies provide all stages from generation to retail, and only governmental supervision regulated the rate of return and cost structure.
  • Since the 1990s, many regions have opened up the generation and distribution of electric power to provide a more competitive electricity market. While such markets can be abusively manipulated with consequent adverse price and reliability impact to consumers, generally competitive production of electrical energy leads to worthwhile improvements in efficiency. However, transmission and distribution are harder problems since returns on investment are not as easy to find.


  • Industrial control system (ICS) is a general term that encompasses several types of control systems and associated instrumentation used for industrial process control.
  • Such systems can range from a few modular panel-mounted controllers to large interconnected and interactive distributed control systems with many thousands of field connections. All systems receive data received from remote sensors measuring process variables (PVs), compare these with desired set points (SPs) and derive command functions which are used to control a process through the final control elements (FCEs), such as control valves.

The larger systems are usually implemented by Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, or distributed control systems (DCS), and programmable logic controllers (PLCs), though SCADA and PLC systems are scalable down to small systems with few control loops.[1] Such systems are extensively used in industries such as chemical processing, pulp and paper manufacture, power generation, oil and gas processing and telecommunications.

  • Industrial automation is the use of various control devices like PC’s/PLC’s/DCS, used to have control on various operations of an industry without significant intervention from humans and to provide automatic control performance. In industries, control strategies use a set of technologies which are  implemented to get the  desired performance or output, making the automation system most essential for industries.
  • Industrial automation involves usage of advanced control strategies like cascade controls, modern control hardware devices as PLC’s,sensors and other instruments for sensing the control variables, signal conditioning equipments to connect the signals to the control devices, drives and other significant final control devices, standalone computing systems, communication systems, alarming and HMI (Human Machine Interface) systems.
  • Industrial control system (ICS) is a collective term used to describe different types of control systems and associated instrumentation, which include the devices, systems, networks, and controls used to operate and/or automate industrial processes. Depending on the industry, each ICS functions differently and are built to electronically manage tasks efficiently. Today the devices and protocols used in an ICS are used in nearly every industrial sector and critical infrastructure such as the manufacturing, transportation, energy, and water treatment industries.

There are several types of ICSs, the most common of which are Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, and Distributed Control Systems (DCS). Local operations are often controlled by so-called Field Devicesthat receive supervisory commands from remote stations.

Power Generation

  • Industrial power generation refers to applications where customers are seeking to reduce utility expenses by generating the needed electricity and heat for their operation locally. Equally important to remote installations is the requirement that the power source be highly reliable as a loss of power to certain processes (such as aluminum smelting) can cause enormous disruption and expense.
  • Engineers in the power generation industry aim to develop technology that is low carbon and low cost, and has high reliability.
  • Power can be generated by a range of technologies, from oil and gas power stations to offshore and onshore wind farms and solar power, as well as the nuclear industry. Large energy companies tend to cover power generation, transmission networks and end users as, if you're generating power, it's more cost effective to sell and distribute to your own customers. In the UK, the major companies are E.ON, EDF Energy, Centrica, npower, Scottish Power and SSE.
  • The industry revolves around three objectives: low carbon, low cost and high reliability. However, these don't always complement each other; coal power is reliable but ruins CO2 emission targets, while offshore wind is low carbon but isn't as reliable and is quite expensive. Innovative technical solutions are often required and the goal for engineers is to develop a 'silver bullet' that ticks all three boxes.
  • Companies in this industry operate electric power generation facilities that convert other forms of energy, such as fossil fuels, nuclear, water, wind, and solar power, into electrical energy. Major companies include American Electric Power, AES, Dominion Energy, Duke Energy, Exelon, and Tennessee Valley Authority (all based in the US), along with China Huaneng Group and Datang Power (both in China), EON (Germany), Inter RAO (Russia), and Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan).

The global electricity industry generates about 24 trillion kilowatt hours (KWh) of electricity. The leading countries in electricity generation are China, the US, India, Russia, and Japan. About 15% of the world's population does not have access to electricity, resulting in an unmet demand that will fuel industry growth in areas like India and Africa.

The US electric power generation industry consists of about 2,900 establishments (single-location companies and units of multi-location companies) with combined annual revenue of about $120 billion.

Companies that generate electricity primarily from fossil fuels, nuclear, solar, or wind are covered in separate industry profiles. Companies that transmit and distribute electricity are covered in the Electric Power Transmission, Distribution & Marketing industry profile.

  • The electric power industry is the backbone of America’s economic sectors, generating the energy that empowers its people and businesses in global commerce. Transportation, water, emergency services, telecommunications, and manufacturing represent only a few of the power grid’s critical downstream dependencies. Reliance on the electric grid is a key interdependency (and vulnerability) amongst all Critical Infrastructure and Key Resource (CIKR) sectors, plus supporting infrastructures, making grid reliability and resilience a fundamental need for national safety and security.
  • The United States has one of the world’s most reliable, affordable, and increasingly clean electric systems, but it faces significant vulnerabilities with respect to physical threats from severe weather, terrorist attacks, and cyber threats. The popular transition to smart, data-driven technologies aims to increase power grid efficiency and engage customer reliability roles, but has been introduced at an unprecedented rate relative to the history of the industry, and injects uncertainty into grid operations, traditional regulatory structures, and utility business models—which have been successful over the past century and a half.                                    
  • Electric power was first generated, sold, and distributed to urban customers in the 1870s and 1880s. Similar to modern-day distributed generation, electricity was generated locally in small power plants and distributed via direct current (DC) circuits, as opposed to the alternating current (AC) generation, transmission, and distribution systems used today. As with modern-day operations, several voltage levels were distributed depending upon the customer’s needs.
  • As demand for power spread geographically over time, DC power systems struggled to expand due to high costs of construction and operation. A more robust, cost-efficient system was needed to generate, transmit, and distribute power over long distances to other urban and rural areas. Toward the end of the 19th century, the industry entered a transition with construction of the first large AC generation station at Niagara Falls—which marked the first technology capable of inducing AC power to be transmitted over long-distance circuits. The construction of larger AC power stations became the commercially-viable solution for the development of a robust, national power grid, and eventually outpaced modular DC power systems.
  • Today, the U.S. electricity sector is influenced by a variety of new forces that have the potential to affect future management and operation of the grid. Current drivers include the growing use of less expensive natural gas for power generation, the retirement of coal and fuel oil generation for carbon reduction, uncertainty in the long-term role for nuclear generation, rapid deployment of intermittent renewable energy technologies, evolution of load types and reduced load growth, severe weather, and growing jurisdictional interactions at Federal, State, and local levels.
  • The private sector, States, and Federal Government all play crucial roles in ensuring that electricity infrastructure is reliable, resilient, and secure. This document will provide a baseline for understanding important topics in each division of the electric power supply chain; examine vulnerabilities to the grid; discuss regulatory and ownership structures; and offer context for causes of power outages and response efforts during emergencies.
  • The world needs electricity, so the power industry should benefit. Indeed, electricity generation is expected to increase by 45 percent between 2015 and 2040. This increase is propelled by rising living standards in emerging markets, which are driving up demand for electronic devices and home appliances, as well as visits to shopping malls and other services, according to the EIA's International Energy Outlook 2017.
  • However, while demand for power will rise, so will the challenges from technology.
  • A few trends are developing in the power generation industry, mainly focused on cleaner energy. According to the EIA's International Energy Outlook 2017, renewables will be the fastest-growing source of generation in the 2015–40 period, trailed by natural gas and nuclear. The slowest will be coal and fossil fuels, which many countries are cutting back on in favor of cleaner energies, spurred by consumer demand for sustainability.
  • One threat to the power industry is rooftop solar power. Tesla, a US company that produces electric cars, energy storage, and solar panels, has started selling solar roof tiles. They turn sunlight into electricity, which is stored in a battery that can also charge an electric car. IKEA has entered the rooftop solar panel business, bringing the Swedish furniture maker's distribution and marketing muscle to the game.
  • As the cost of solar roof systems come down, more people will be able to generate their own power and sell the surplus, converting their homes into a utility—and a new competitor for power plants.
  • In the electric car market, which should be a boon for power utilities as falling vehicle prices widen sales, disruption is also starting. Lightyear, a Dutch startup, has created a car that charges itself.
  • Yaniv Vardi, CEO of Panoramic Power, a provider of technology for monitoring energy consumption, says the advance of technology and smart devices will push up energy consumption, but not as much as expected. This is because more devices, from factory machinery to home appliances, are coming with sensors that allow users to reduce energy consumption, such as by upgrading machinery or powering down during off-hours.
  • "Utilities are no longer in a position to simply collect the check," Vardi wrote for Eco-Business.

Substation Control

  • A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. A substation may include transformers to change voltage levels between high transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the interconnection of two different transmission voltages.
  • Substations may be owned and operated by an electrical utility, or may be owned by a large industrial or commercial customer. Generally substations are unattended, relying on SCADA for remote supervision and control.
  • The word substation comes from the days before the distribution system became a grid. As central generation stations became larger, smaller generating plants were converted to distribution stations, receiving their energy supply from a larger plant instead of using their own generators. The first substations were connected to only one power station, where the generators were housed, and were subsidiaries of that power station.
  • Early electrical substations required manual switching or adjustment of equipment, and manual collection of data for load, energy consumption, and abnormal events. As the complexity of distribution networks grew, it became economically necessary to automate supervision and control of substations from a centrally attended point, to allow overall coordination in case of emergencies and to reduce operating costs. Early efforts to remote control substations used dedicated communication wires, often run alongside power circuits. Power-line carrier, microwave radio, fiber optic cables as well as dedicated wired remote control circuits have all been applied to Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) for substations. The development of the microprocessor made for an exponential increase in the number of points that could be economically controlled and monitored. Today, standardized communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850 and Modbus, to list a few, are used to allow multiple intelligent electronic devices to communicate with each other and supervisory control centers. Distributed automatic control at substations is one element of the so-called smart grid.
  • There is an increased focus on transmission and distribution investments to address aging and distressed infrastructure. Previously voluntary reliability programs under the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) are transitioning to mandatory reliability standards, requiring self reporting and imposing penalties for non- compliance. Utilities are placing a greater emphasis on real time, enterprise wide information to secure the right information and the right time to enhance reliability and to better manage asset management and operations and management.
  • Intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) being implemented in substations today contain valuable information, both operational and non-operational, needed by many user groups within the utility. An IED is any device that incorporates one or more processors with the capability to receive or send data/control from or to an external source (e.g., electronic multifunction meters, digital relays, controllers). IED technology can help utilities improve reliability, gain operational efficiencies, and enable asset management programs including predictive maintenance, life extensions and improved planning.
  • IEDs are a key component of substation integration and automation technology. Substation integration involves integrating protection, control, and data acquisition functions into a minimal number of platforms to reduce capital and operating costs, reduce panel and control room space, and eliminate redundant equipment and databases. Automation involves the deployment of substation and feeder operating functions and applications ranging from supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and alarm processing to integrated volt/var control in order to optimize the management of capital assets and enhance operation and maintenance (O&M) efficiencies with minimal human intervention.
  • IEDs facilitate the exchange of both operational and non-operational data. Operational data, also called supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data, are instantaneous values of power system analog and status points such as volts, amps, MW, MVAR, circuit breaker status, switch position. This data is time critical and is used to monitor and control the power system (e.g., opening circuit breakers, changing tap settings, equipment failure indication, etc.). Non-operational data consists of files and waveforms such as event summaries, oscillographic event reports, or sequential events records, in addition to SCADA-like points (e.g., status and analog points) that have a logical state or a numerical value. This data is not needed by the SCADA dispatchers to monitor and control the power system.
  • Levels of Substation Automation - Substation integration and automation can be broken down into five levels. The lowest level is the power system equipment, such as transformers and circuit breakers. The middle three levels are IED implementation, IED integration, and substation automation applications. All electric utilities are implementing IEDs in their substations. The focus today is on the integration of the IEDs. Once this is done, the focus will shift to what automation applications should run at the substation level. The highest level is the utility enterprise, and there are multiple functional data paths from the substation to the utility enterprise.
  • Open systems - An open system is a computer system that embodies supplier- independent standards so that software may be applied on many different platforms and can interoperate with other applications on local and remote systems. An open system is an evolutionary means for a substation control system that is based on the use of nonproprietary, standard software and hardware interfaces. Open systems enable future upgrades available from multiple suppliers at lower cost to be integrated with relative ease and low risk.
  • Architecture Functional Data Paths - There are three primary functional data paths from the substation to the utility enterprise: operational data to SCADA systems, non- operational data to data warehouse, remote access to IED. The most common data path is conveying the operational data (e.g., volts, amps) to the utility’s SCADA system every 2 to 4 s. This information is critical for the utility’s dispatchers to monitor and control the power system. The most challenging data path is conveying the non-operational data to the utility’s data warehouse.
  • Substation Integration and Automation System Functional Architecture - The functional architecture includes three functional data paths from the substation to the utility enterprise, as well as the SCADA system and the data warehouse - Data Concentrator, SCADA interface, Router. The operational data path to the SCADA system utilizes the communication protocol presently supported by the SCADA system. The non-operational data path to the data warehouse conveys the IED non-operational data from the substation automation (SA) system to the data warehouse, either being pulled by a data warehouse application from the SA system or being pushed from the SA system to the data warehouse based on an event trigger or time. The remote access path to the substation utilizes a dial-in telephone or network connection.
  • New vs. existing Substations - The design of new substations has the advantage of starting with a blank sheet of paper. The new substation will typically have many IEDs for different functions, and the majority of operational data for the SCADA system will come from these IEDs. The IEDs will be integrated with digital two-way communications. Typically, there are no conventional remote terminal units (RTUs) in new substations. The RTU functionality is addressed using IEDs, PLCs, and an integration network using digital communications.
  • In existing substations, there are several alternative approaches, depending on whether or not the substation has a conventional RTU installed. The utility has three choices for their existing conventional substation RTUs: integrate RTU with IEDs; integrate RTU as another IED; retire RTU and use IEDs and PLCs as with new substation.
  • Equipment Condition Monitoring - Many electric utilities have employed ECM to maintain electric equipment in top operating condition while minimizing the number of interruptions. With ECM, equipment-operating parameters are automatically tracked to detect the emergence of various abnormal operating conditions. This allows substation operations personnel to take timely action when needed to improve reliability and extend equipment life. This approach is applied most frequently to substation transformers and high voltage electric supply circuit breakers to minimize the maintenance costs of these devices, as well as improve their availability and extend their useful life.
  • behind in technology when compared to other industries, such as the Industrial sector where automation was at the forefront. The industrial sector was already implementing systems utilizing Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), servomotors, high tech sensing devices, and human machine interfaces (HMIs). At that time the power delivery industry was still utilizing electromechanical devices that were designed in the early 20th century and oscillographs that required new paper to be installed periodically. Some of the newer technologies at that time were solid state devices that were installed within the previous decade.
  • Since then, there has been an evolution of technological advances in substation protection and controls with the introduction of some of the first generation microprocessor-based relays, along with Supervisory, Control, and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems that had the ability to perform logic. This was just the beginning of the ‘Information Age’ for our electric grid. Today, power utility companies are installing Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) as protective relays that have the ability to perform all of the protective functionality required to isolate faults from the healthy parts of the system, as well as the ability to collect data, perform logic, and communicate with other devices, such as communication processors that are part of modern SCADA systems. SCADA systems communicate data allowing dispatchers/operators to monitor and control substations remotely. Some examples of data being collected by protective relays are analog signals such as current, power (real & reactive), and voltage along with status signals such as relay health, breaker status, and trip coil health.
  • In addition to the use of IED’s, many new technologies are being used to make substations smarter.
  • An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers.
  • Electric power may flow through several substations between generating plant and consumer, and may be changed in voltage in several steps.
  • A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage while decreasing the current, while a step-down transformer decreases the voltage while increasing the current for domestic and commercial distribution.

Substation Distribution

  • A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the
  • distribution system of an area.
  • The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or subtransmission lines.
  • Distribution voltages are typically medium voltage, between 2.4 and 33 kV depending on the size of the area served and the practices of the local utility.
  • Besides changing the voltage, the job of the distribution substation is to isolate faults in either the transmission or distribution systems.
  • Distribution substations may also be the points of voltage regulation, although on long distribution circuits (several km/miles), voltage regulation equipment may also be installed along the line.
  • Complicated distribution substations can be found in the downtown areas of large cities, with high-voltage switching, and switching and backup systems on the low-voltage side.
  • Distribution Substation: These are located near to the end-users. Distribution substation transformers change the subtransmission voltageto lower levels for use by end-users.
  • Electric power distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electric power; it carries electricity from the transmission system to individual consumers. Distribution substations connect to the transmission system and lower the transmission voltage to medium voltageranging between 2 kV and 35 kV with the use of transformers.[1] Primary distribution lines carry this medium voltage power to distribution transformers located near the customer's premises. Distribution transformers again lower the voltage to the utilization voltage used by lighting, industrial equipment or household appliances. Often several customers are supplied from one transformer through secondary distribution lines. Commercial and residential customers are connected to the secondary distribution lines through service drops. Customers demanding a much larger amount of power may be connected directly to the primary distribution level or the subtransmission[2]

The transition from transmission to distribution happens in a power substation, which has the following functions:[2]

  • Circuit breakers and switches enable the substation to be disconnected from the transmission grid or for distribution lines to be disconnected.
  • Transformers step down transmission voltages, 35kV or more, down to primary distribution voltages. These are medium voltage circuits, usually 600-35,000 V.[1]
  • From the transformer, power goes to the busbar that can split the distribution power off in multiple directions. The bus distributes power to distribution lines, which fan out to customers.

Urban distribution is mainly underground, sometimes in common utility ducts. Rural distribution is mostly above ground with utility poles, and suburban distribution is a mix.[1] Closer to the customer, a distribution transformer steps the primary distribution power down to a low-voltage secondary circuit, usually 120/240 volts in the US for residential customers. The power comes to the customer via a service drop and an electricity meter. The final circuit in an urban system may be less than 50 feet, but may be over 300 feet for a rural customer.[1]


Industrial Automation

  • Industrial automation is the use of control systems, such as computers or robots, and information technologies for handling different processes and machineries in an industry to replace a human being. It is the second step beyond mechanization in the scope of industrialization.

●     Increase Quality and Flexibility in Your Manufacturing Process

  • Earlier the purpose of automation was to increase productivity (since automated systems can work 24 hours a day), and to reduce the cost associated with human operators (i.e. wages & benefits). However, today, the focus of automation has shifted to increasing quality and flexibility in a manufacturing process. In the automobile industry, the installation of pistons into the engine used to be performed manually with an error rate of 1-1.5%. Presently, this task is performed using automated machinery with an error rate of 0.00001%.

●     Advantages of Industrial Automation

  • Lower operating cost: Industrial automation eliminates healthcare costs and paid leave and holidays associated with a human operator. Further, industrial automation does not require other employee benefits such as bonuses, pension coverage etc. Above all, although it is associated with a high initial cost it saves the monthly wages of the workers which leads to substantial cost savings for the company. The maintenance cost associated with machinery used for industrial automation is less because it does not often fail. If it fails, only computer and maintenance engineers are required to repair it.

●     High productivity

  • Although many companies hire hundreds of production workers for a up to three shifts to run the plant for the maximum number of hours, the plant still needs to be closed for maintenance and holidays. Industrial automation fulfills the aim of the company by allowing the company to run a manufacturing plant for 24 hours in a day 7 days in a week and 365 days a year. This leads to a significant improvement in the productivity of the company.

●     High Quality

  • Automation alleviates the error associated with a human being. Further, unlike human beings, robots do not involve any fatigue, which results in products with uniform quality manufactured at different times.

●     High flexibility

  • Adding a new task in the assembly line requires training with a human operator, however, robots can be programmed to do any task. This makes the manufacturing process more flexible.

●     High Information Accuracy

  • Adding automated data collection, can allow you to collect key production information, improve data accuracy, and reduce your data collection costs. This provides you with the facts to make the right decisions when it comes to reducing waste and improving your processes.

●     High safety

  • Industrial automation can make the production line safe for the employees by deploying robots to handle hazardous conditions.
  • The rise of industrial automation is directly tied to the “fourth industrial revolution”, which is better known now as Industry 4.0. Originating from Germany, Industry 4.0 encompasses numerous devises, concepts, and machines [75]. It, along with the advancement of the Industrial Internet of Things (formally known as the IoT or IIoT) which is “Internet of Things is a seamless integration of diverse physical objects in the Internet through a virtual representation”[76]. These new revolutionary advancements have drawn attention to the world of automation in an entirely new light and shown ways for it to grow to increase productivity and efficiency in machinery and manufacturing facilities. Industry 4.0 works with the IIoT and softwares/hardwares to connect in a way that (through communication technologies) add enhancements and improve manufacturing processes. Being able to create smarter, safer, and more advanced manufacturing is now possible with these new technologies. It opens up a manufacturing platform that is more reliable, consistent, and efficient that before. Implementation of systems such as SCADA are an example of softwares that take place in Industrial Automation today
  • See also: SCADA
  • . SCADA is a supervisory data collection software, just one of the many used in Industrial Automation [77]. Industry 4.0 vastly covers many areas in manufacturing and will continue to do so as time goes on [78].
    • The rise of industrial automation is directly tied to the “fourth industrial revolution”, which is better known now as Industry 4.0. Originating from Germany, Industry 4.0 encompasses numerous devises, concepts, and machines [75]. It, along with the advancement of the Industrial Internet of Things (formally known as the IoT or IIoT) which is “Internet of Things is a seamless integration of diverse physical objects in the Internet through a virtual representation”[76]. These new revolutionary advancements have drawn attention to the world of automation in an entirely new light and shown ways for it to grow to increase productivity and efficiency in machinery and manufacturing facilities. Industry 4.0 works with the IIoT and softwares/hardwares to connect in a way that (through communication technologies) add enhancements and improve manufacturing processes. Being able to create smarter, safer, and more advanced manufacturing is now possible with these new technologies. It opens up a manufacturing platform that is more reliable, consistent, and efficient that before. Implementation of systems such as SCADA are an example of softwares that take place in Industrial Automation today
    • See also: SCADA
    • . SCADA is a supervisory data collection software, just one of the many used in Industrial Automation [77]. Industry 4.0 vastly covers many areas in manufacturing and will continue to do so as time goes on [78].
  • Automation takes a step further mechanization that uses a particular machinery mechanism aided human operators for performing a task. Mechanization is the manual operation of a task using powered machinery that depends on human decision making.
  • On the other hand, automation replaces the human involvement with the use of logical programming commands and powerful machineries.
  • Industrial Automation is the replacement with computers and machines to that of human thinking. The word Automation gives the meaning ‘self dictating’ or ‘a mechanism move by itself’ that derived from the Greek words Auto and Matos where auto means self while Matos means moving.
  • In a brief, industrial automation can be defined as the use of set technologies and automatic control devices that results the automatic operation and control of industrial processes without significant human intervention and achieving superior performance than manual control. These automation devices include PLCs, PCs, PACs, and technologies include various industrial communication systems.
  • The above figure shows the power plant automation provided by Siemens for achieving sustainable, safe and economic operations. It provides the total integrated automation (TIA) by automating every section of power plant with efficient control devices, field sensors and actuating devices. In this automation, SIMATIC modules (PLCs) are used as control devices while WinCC provides an effective graphical interface.
  • Automation of factory or manufacturing or process plant improves production rate through a better control of production. It helps to produce mass production by drastically reducing assembly time per product with a greater production quality. Therefore, for a given labor input it produces a large amount of output.
  • Integration of various processes in industry with automated machineries, minimizes cycle times and effort and hence the need of human labor gets reduced. Thus the investment on employees has been saved with automation.
  • Since the automation reduces the human involvement, the possibility of human errors also gets eliminated. Uniformity and product quality with a greater conformity can be maintained with automation by adaptively controlling and monitoring the industrial processes in all stages right from inception of a product to an end product.
  • Automation completely reduces the need for manual checking of various process parameters. By taking advantage of automation technologies, industrial processes automatically adjusts process variables to set or desired values using closed loop control techniques.
  • Industrial automation is the control of machinery and processes used in various industries by autonomous systems through the use of technologies like robotics and computer software.
  • Industries implement automation to increase productivity and reduce costs related to employees, their benefits and other associated expenses, while increasing precision and flexibility.
  • With the Industrial Revolution came mechanization, which brought cheaper and more plentiful goods. Generally, the mechanical processes in industries were faster and produced greater quantities of goods but still required skilled workers. Not only did machines require operators but when errors occurred, they would waste materials, cause production issues and even damage equipment.
  • With the arrival of automation, control loops were added to machine operation. These can be open control loops that allow for human input or closed loops which are fully automated. Industrial control systems (ICS) allow for monitoring and control locally and remotely. With these increasingly advanced control mechanisms, industries can operate 24 hours a day. Productivity has increased, errors are reduced and quality is improved. However, automation does have some negative impact, including high initial costs, reduced worker employment and the elimination of some ethical human oversight. As automation continues to advance and gain popularity in new industries, it is possible to see these events increase.
  • Recent advancements in automation in industrial production are focused on flexibility and quality. Manufacturing flexibility not only allows for more product types, but also lets consumers order customized products that are automatically produced.


  • The U.S. mining industry consists of the search for, extraction, beneficiation, and processing of naturally occurring solid minerals from the earth. These mined minerals include coal, metals such as iron, copper, or zinc, and industrial minerals such as potash, limestone, and other crushed rocks. Oil and natural gas extraction (NAICS code 211) is not included in this industry. Metals and other minerals are an essential source of raw materials for the U.S. building and chemical industries and are also a critical part of the production of everyday electronics and consumer products. For example, over 65 different minerals are required to produce a modern computer. Furthermore, coal accounts for nearly 50% of electric power generated in the United States
  • Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner.

Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water.

Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed.

While exploration and mining can be conducted by individual entrepreneurs or small businesses, most modern-day mines are large enterprises requiring large amounts of capital to establish. Consequently, the mining sector of the industry is dominated by large, often multinational, companies, most of them publicly listed. It can be argued that what is referred to as the 'mining industry' is actually two sectors, one specializing in exploration for new resources and the other in mining those resources. The exploration sector is typically made up of individuals and small mineral resource companies, called "juniors", which are dependent on venture capital. The mining sector is made up of large multinational companies that are sustained by production from their mining operations. Various other industries such as equipment manufacture, environmental testing, and metallurgy analysis rely on, and support, the mining industry throughout the world. Canadian stock exchanges have a particular focus on mining companies, particularly junior exploration companies through Toronto's TSX Venture Exchange; Canadian companies raise capital on these exchanges and then invest the money in exploration globally.[51] Some have argued that below juniors there exists a substantial sector of illegitimate companies primarily focused on manipulating stock prices.[51]

  • Mining consists of the discovery, valuation, development, exploitation, processing, and marketing of useful minerals, such as coal, iron, or precious metals. The mining industry locates minerals and removes them in the most economical and efficient way possible for use by various industries, such as energy production and construction.
  • The mining industry may be classified into three groups, based on the type of minerals they produce: energy minerals, nonmetallic minerals, and metallic minerals. Energy minerals are fossil fuels, such as coal; nonmetallic minerals include phosphate rock used in fertilizers and limestone rock used in cement; salt used domestically and in industry for the production of basic chemicals; and sand and gravel used extensively in construction. Metallic minerals are iron ores, copper ores, and bauxite, which is the raw material for the aluminum industry.
  • Discovering viable places to mine is a science that requires trained and experienced professionals to determine whether or not ore deposits and mineralized masses are viable for mining technically, economically, socially, and politically. Scientists, engineers, technicians, and support staff work together to make this assessment.
  • Mining offers careers in design, maintenance, engineering, law, and management. Those with a science education may find positions as chemists, petrologists, geochemists, surveyors, and various mining technicians. Mining workers with high-tech and mechanical skills include mechanics, machinists, drafters, electricians, and instrumentation technicians. Sales and marketing professionals play a key role in the mining industry and must be familiar with the workings of the commodity markets and the flow of minerals in national and international commerce.
  • Mining is first and foremost a source of mineral commodities that all countries find essential for maintaining and improving their standards of living. Mined materials are needed to construct roads and hospitals, to build automobiles and houses, to make computers and satellites, to generate electricity, and to provide the many other goods and services that consumers enjoy.
  • In addition, mining is economically important to producing regions and countries. It provides employment, dividends, and taxes that pay for hospitals, schools, and public facilities. The mining industry produces a trained workforce and small businesses that can service communities and may initiate related businesses. Mining also yields foreign exchange and accounts for a significant portion of gross domestic product. Mining fosters a number of associated activities, such as manufacturing of mining equipment, provision of engineering and environmental services, and the development of world-class universities in the fields of geology, mining engineering, and metallurgy. The economic opportunities and wealth generated by mining for many producing countries are substantial.


  • Definition: The branch of manufacture and trade based on the fabrication, processing, or preparation of products from raw materials and commodities. This includes all foods, chemicals, textiles, machines, and equipment. This includes all refined metals and minerals dirrived from extracted ores. This includes all lumber, wood, and pulp products.
  • Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, furniture, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users and consumers.
  • Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part.
  • Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication
  • The Manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products.
  • Establishments in the Manufacturing sector are often described as plants, factories, or mills and characteristically use power-driven machines and materials-handling equipment. However, establishments that transform materials or substances into new products by hand or in the worker's home and those engaged in selling to the general public products made on the same premises from which they are sold, such as bakeries, candy stores, and custom tailors, may also be included in this sector. Manufacturing establishments may process materials or may contract with other establishments to process their materials for them. Both types of establishments are included in manufacturing.
  • Manufacturing industries are those that engage in the transformation of goods, materials or substances into new products. The transformational process can be physical, chemical or mechanical. Manufacturers often have plants, mills or factories that produce goods for public consumption. Machines and equipment are typically used in the process of manufacturing. Although, in some cases, goods can be manufactured by hand. An example of this would be baked goods, handcrafted jewelry, other handicrafts and art.
  • There are several massive manufacturing industries in the United States including food, beverage, tobacco, textiles, apparel, leather, paper, oil and coal, plastics and rubbers, metal, machinery, computers and electronics, transportation, furniture and others. More than 12 million Americans are employed across manufacturing industries. Further, many millions more are employed indirectly by the manufacturing industries. Manufacturing is vital to the U.S. economy, making up a large percentage of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). Manufacturing industries are responsible for the goods in our economy, or the physical products we buy and use every day.
  • Manufacturers create physical goods. How these goods are created varies depending on the specific company and industry. However, most manufacturers use machinery and industrial equipment to produce goods for public consumption. The manufacturing process creates value, meaning companies can charge a premium for what they create. For example, rubber is not particularly valuable on its own. But when it is formed into a car tire, it holds substantially more value. So, in this case, the manufacturing process that allows the rubber to be transformed into a necessary car part adds value.
  • Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the majority of goods were made by hand. Since the Industrial Revolution, manufacturing has grown increasingly important, with many goods being massed produced. Mass production means that goods can be produced much more quickly and with more precision. This drives down prices and makes many consumer goods cheaper, their cost within reach of the general public. When the assembly line was introduced into manufacturing, production further skyrocketed. Then, in the early 20th century, Henry Ford introduced a conveyor belt that physically moved products through the factory, from one station to the next. Each station also had a worker responsible for fulfilling a specific stage in the production process. This simple conveyor belt tripled production, and changed manufacturing forever.
  • Today’s advancement of computer technology allows manufacturers to do more with less time. Now, thousands of items can be manufactured within the space of minutes. Computer technology can be used to assemble, test and track production. Each year, technology continues to make manufacturing increasingly efficient, faster and more cost-effective. However, automation also eliminates many manufacturing jobs, leaving skilled employees without work.


  • The ongoing demand for construction of smart cities across geographies and various mega construction particularly in developing countries will rise demand for the cranes. Increasing investments made by governments as well as private sector companies in infrastructure development projects is the major factor driving growth of the global crane market. Within these infrastructure projects the key demand drivers going forward are road construction, urban infrastructure, irrigation and mining operations. Investments in infrastructure can be classified into investments for roads, ports, airports, railways, pipelines, irrigation, waterways and urban infrastructure. Further, increasing demand for high capacity lifting is boosting the demand for some specialized products such as mobile cranes.
  • Increasing focus of customers towards procuring used cranes due to avoid high cost new equipment is a crucial factor which can obstruct the market growth. Some of the key trends witnessed in the market are shifting focus towards compact and remote operated cranes and changing consumer towards crane that ensures driver’s comfort and safety.
  • Global crane market is estimated to grow with approx. 6.08% of CAGR during the forecast year 2017-2025. Cranes are used for hoisting materials and are equipped with a hoist, wire ropes, chains, and sheaves which efficiently lift the material, move them horizontally and laterally and drop them at a designated location. Technological advancements and new innovations have resulted in a compact, lighter and intelligent cranes. The growth of global crane market is primarily driven by following factors:
    • Construction sector picking up pace in key geographies
    • Continuous technological improvements
    • Fuel efficiency bringing down operational cost
    • Investment in energy exploration fueling demand in North America
  • Festoon systems are used to manage electrical cable and or air hosing. They are a clean low resistance method for distributing power to hoists, cranes, trolleys, and any number of different types of moving equipment.
  • While shielded electrification bar is the go to for long systems with multiple cranes or hoists festoon is preferred in many applications.
  • Festoon cable systems allows almost an endless number of wires for all types of control and power distribution where bar is limited in this respect. The trolley systems running on or within a track also provide a very low friction alternative with almost no maintenance or wearing parts.
  • We offer wide selection of system components such as Festoon hangers, Festoon end caps and stops, festoon joint assembly, festoon C-track, and more. Hoist and Crane Depot can help you define the best type system to maximize your value and optimize the function and reliability of the complete system.
  • Festoon systems can also be used in spark resistant and explosion proof applications when necessary. Unlike shielded bar there are no open surfaces carrying current which have a potential for unsafe exposure.


  • Boating is the leisurely activity of travelling by boat, or the recreational use of a boat whether powerboats, sailboats, or man-powered vessels (such as rowing and paddle boats), focused on the travel itself, as well as sports activities, such as fishing or waterskiing. It is a popular activity, and there are millions of boaters worldwide.
  • Well in my own opinion the maritime industry is an industry that deals with the running of ships and vessels as well as the movement of vessels and goods on the waters.
  • It also involves the custom and excise duties imposed on goods coming in and out as well as freights. Also oil and gas transportation, the buying and selling is being controlled by the maritime sector.
  • The maritime industry is a very vast industry as it creates lots of job opportunities in fact over millions of opportunities for people with very good pay and working benefits as well.
  • I believe the Maritime industry is an emerging industry with lots of opportunities, innovation and growth areas especially for aspiring entrepreneurs. The maritime industry comprises of companies whose activities supply innovative products and services related to the maritime sector. The industry includes all enterprises engaged in the business of designing, constructing, manufacturing, acquiring, operating, supplying, repairing and/or maintaining vessels, or component parts thereof: of managing and/or operating shipping lines, and customs brokerage services, shipyards, dry docks, marine railways, Marine fishing, repair shops, shipping and freight forwarding services and similar enterprises. This industry also includes a significant component of oil and gas and renewable energy. This industry is an under-explored area in Nigeria as many entrepreneurs’ eyes are yet to be opened towards this area. The industry could also serve as a means of export for the country which would automatically contribute to our GDP. In addition, its holds a chance of providing jobs for the teeming unemployed youths.
  • TheMaritime industry deals with onshore and offshore of goods and services through the sea. It is a very good source of generating revenue for the state or the country at large depending on the authorities in charge. I believe the industry could thrive well if not, only those that are directly involved knows it all but make their operations more visible for people to invest in
  • exchange of goods and services through the seaport with charges on them which serves as a source of revenue generation for the government.

OEM MRO Customers

  • An Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) is a company that produces parts and equipment that may be marketed by another manufacturer. For example, if Acme Manufacturing Co. makes power cords that are used on IBM computers, Acme is an OEM.
  • The term is also used in several other ways, which causes ambiguity. It sometimes means the maker of a system that includes other companies' subsystems, an end-product producer, an automotive part that is manufactured by the same company that produced the original part used in the automobile's assembly, or a value-added reseller
  • OEM stands for Original Equipment Manufacturer. Most often, OEMs purchase parts from other manufacturers or suppliers and use them to assemble their finished products. OEMs also make parts and sub-assemblies that are resold to other companies who assemble them into their own finished products.
  • The acronym OEM has come to be associated with product engineering and manufacturing, sub-assembly manufacturing (especially automotive and electronics) and even component manufacturing.
  • OEM manufacturers design, engineer and manufacture complete products and systems. Some OEMs also manufacture sub-assemblies or component parts. Other manufacturers purchase these and assemble them into their products. It is not unusual for OEMs to perform all of these functions: parts manufacture, sub-assembly and final production.
  • There are also types of manufacturers that are described as ODMs (original design manufacturers). ODMs assemble or design and assemble component parts into complete products. These finished products are then branded with the names of other companies who distribute the finished products.
  • MRO purchasing or Maintenance, Repair and Operations (MRO) are those purchases necessary to keep the business running. In some types of businesses such as an office block these kinds of purchasing may be quite small and many purchases, such as cleaning, will be made on a regular basis.


  • In other types of companies, such as a manufacturing plant with a considerable number of machines, MRO-purchasing will not only be made up of a significant number of different types of purchases, but they will also make up a large percentage of total purchases.
  • One of the key focuses of MRO-purchasing within this kind of business is the need to manage inventory. With so many parts, products and services required any overstock would quickly show on the bottom line. A prudent purchasing manager will ensure that as many maintenance contracts s possible are in place.
  • MRO-purchasing, due to its ad hoc nature, is usually managed via the issue of purchasing requisitions. This means that expenditure control could quickly get out of hand. The trick is to estimate what supplies and services are regularly required and issue regular purchase orders.

●     Definition: Maintenance Repair & Operating (MRO)

  • Maintenance, repair and operations (MRO) are used to fix any electrical equipment if it goes out of order. The operations also ensure that the preventive maintenance is done to prevent the drive from going out of order. The MRO actions include all the supervision, technical operations, managerial and administrative actions. The MRO operations are done either as a service to the customers requiring preventive and corrective maintaining action for their drives or as a service to the firm that reprocess the drives.
  • Generally four type of maintenance are required:
  • Preventive Maintenance: To prevent the drive from going out of order
  • Operative Maintenance: Maintenance while operation of equipment
  • Corrective Maintenance: To fix the equipment after it goes out of order
  • Adaptive Maintenance: Maintaining while equipment is exposed to new environment
  • MRO supplies are the small items that are consumed during the production but don’t become the part of end products. These are not central to the output of a firm.
  • In the business, manufacturing and supply chain areas, the MRO acronym stands for maintenance, repair and operations. It can also refer to the similar maintenance, repair and operating supplies. MRO refers to any supplies or goods that are used within the production process, but that don’t end up as part of the final product.
  • Depending on the type of business you’re in, MRO can refer to a number of different kinds of goods. MRO products are generally separated into a few categories: consumables, equipment, plant upkeep supplies, technology and furniture.

    Consumable MRO items include cleaning supplies like bleach and mops and office supplies like pens and printer paper. They can also be laboratory supplies like beakers, test tubes and safety glasses. Equipment included in the MRO definition are items such as compressors, pumps and valves, or any other equipment used in creating the final product. Plant upkeep supplies include lubricants for machines and repair tools like screw drivers and wrenches.

    Technology usually refers to items like computers, laptops, printers, smartphones, tablets and any other items that are used in the business that relate to creating the final product. Furniture items include desks, chairs, tables and other office items.

Broadcast and AV

  • Already covered


  • The healthcare industry (also called the medical industryor health economy) is an aggregation and integration of sectors within the economic system that provides goods and services to treat patients with curative, preventive, rehabilitative, and palliative care. It includes the generation and commercialization of goods and services lending themselves to maintaining and re-establishing health.[1] The modern healthcare industry is divided into many sectors and depends on interdisciplinary teams of trained professionals and paraprofessionals to meet health needs of individuals and populations.[2][3] The healthcare industry is one of the world's largest and fastest-growing industries.[4] Consuming over 10 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) of most developed nations, health care can form an enormous part of a country's economy.
  • Healthcare is one of the most crucial, complex, and rapidly growing industries in the country and the world. MBA opportunities in the healthcare industry span across different sectors, with each sector offering positions in multiple functions.
  • Payer
    • The Payer sector includes companies that finance the cost of healthcare, such as insurance companies, health plan sponsors (such as employers or unions), and government agencies.
  • Example Firms: Humana, WellPoint, The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
  • Provider
    • The Provider sector includes companies that provide healthcare services to patients, such as hospitals, physician groups, and long term care facilities.
  • Example Firms: Kaiser Permanente, City of Hope, HealthCare Partners Medical Group


  • Life Sciences/Pharma
    • The Life Sciences sector includes companies that develop and produce pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and medical devices.
    • Example Firms: Lilly, Genentech, Johnson and Johnson, DaVita
  • Digital Health
    • The Digital health sector includes companies that develop digital solutions to the healthcare industry.
  • Example Firms: Qualcomm Life, Heartmath, ANT+
  • Overview document
  • the complex of preventive, remedial, and therapeutic servicesprovided by hospitals and other institutions, nurses, doctors,dentists, medical administrators, government agencies, voluntaryagencies, noninstitutional care facilities, pharmaceutic andmedical equipment manufacturers, and health insurancecompanies.
  • The health care industry is one of the largest industries in the world, and it has a direct effect on the quality of life of people in each country. Health care (or healthcare) is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. Health care is delivered by practitioners in medicine, chiropractic, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, allied health, and other care providers. The health care industry, or medical industry, is a sector that provides goods and services to treat patients with curative, preventive, rehabilitative or palliative care.

The modern health care sector is divided into many sub-sectors, and depends on interdisciplinary teams of trained professionals and paraprofessionals to meet health needs of individuals and populations. The health care industry is one of the world's largest and fastest-growing industries and forms an enormous part of a country's economy.

The delivery of modern health care depends on groups of trained professionals and paraprofessionals coming together as interdisciplinary teams. This includes professionals in medicine, nursing, dentistry and allied health, plus many others such as public health practitioners, community health workers and assistive personnel, who systematically provide personal and population-based preventive, curative and rehabilitative care services.

This section is an attempt to understand the definitions, cultural, political, organizational and disciplinary perspectives of this industry. This section is designed to help learners understand key concepts, terminology, issues, and challenges associated with the health care industry, and strategies employed to meet some of those challenges. It will identify the main sectors of the health care industry and its business drivers, and review the key aspects of the industry business model, its competitive environment and the current trends in the industry. Target audience for these tutorials are IT professionals working on healthcare domain, consulting houses, industry investors, and all size companies that sell products or services to healthcare sectors and allied industries. This section will be useful for organizations and professionals looking for knowledge and key business information in the health care industry

The health care industry, or medical industry, is a sector that provides goods and services to treat patients with curative, preventive, rehabilitative or palliative care. The modern health care sector is divided into many sub-sectors, and depends on interdisciplinary teams of trained professionals and paraprofessionals to meet health needs of individuals and populations. This article provides an overview of medical industry.

  • Health care differs from other goods and services in important ways. The output of a shoe factory is shoes. But the output of the health care industry is less well defined. It is unpredictable and imperfectly understood by producers, and still less by consumers. Also, third-party payment and government intervention are pervasive. None of these characteristics is unique to health care, but their extent and their interaction are. Nevertheless, health care markets obey the fundamental rules of economics, and economic analysis is essential in appraising public policy.

The ultimate output of medical care is its effect on health. This effect can only be assigned probabilities before the care is provided and is difficult to measure even after the fact. Medical care is not the only determinant of health; others include nutrition, exercise, and other life-style factors. Efficient allocation of private and public budgets to health requires equating marginal benefit and marginal cost for each of these inputs

Despite barriers to entry, the health care industry has become extremely competitive in recent years. This is because of the large number of firms in most market segments, a more aggressive role of public and private payers in attempting to control costs, and antitrust enforcement.

  • The healthcare sector is the sector of the economy made up of companies that specialize in products and services related to health and medical care.

The healthcare sector includes publicly-traded companies that power all dimensions of the healthcare industry. Examples of these companies include, but are not limited to, biotechnology companies, health insurance providers, pharmaceutical companies, and companies that manage clinics and hospitals. Companies that produce professional and home health products (for example, blood-pressure monitors, Elastoplasts, orthopedic devices, and surgical supplies) are also included in this sector.

Due to the indispensable nature of healthcare at all levels of society, stocks issued by companies in the healthcare sector are somewhat insulated from the business cycle. Investors may be able to defend against fluctuations in the overall market by building a portfolio that includes healthcare sector stocks.



  • The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles,[1]some of them are called automakers. It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.
  • The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle.
    • S
  • The United States has one of the largest automotive markets in the world, and is home to many global vehicle and auto parts manufacturers. In 2017 alone, U.S. light vehicle sales reached 17.1 million units, the third straight year in which sales reached or surpassed $17 million. (Ward's Automotive Reports, January 8, 2018). Overall, the United States is the world’s second-largest market for vehicle sales and production.

Since Honda opened its first U.S. plant in 1982, almost every major European, Japanese, and Korean automaker has produced vehicles and invested more than $75 billion in the United States, directly supporting 130,000 American jobs. Additionally, many automakers have U.S.-based engine and transmission plants, and conduct research and development (R&D), design, and testing in the United States.

The automotive industry is also at the forefront of innovation. New R&D initiatives are transforming the industry to better respond to the opportunities of the 21st century. According to Auto Alliance, of the $105 billion spent on R&D globally, almost a fifth ($18 billion) is spent in the United States.

In 2017, the United States exported almost 2 million new light vehicles and almost 130,000 medium and heavy trucks (valued at $63.2 billion) to more than 200 markets around the world, with additional exports of automotive parts valued at $85.6 billion. With an open investment policy, a large consumer market, a highly skilled workforce, available infrastructure, and local and state government incentives, the United States is the premier market for the 21st century automotive industry.

  • The Automotive Industry is comprised primarily of the world’s largest passenger automobile and light truck manufacturers. Through broad dealership networks, most members of the industry sell vehicles in the global market, covering developed and emerging countries. Automotive manufacturers offer a variety of makes and models, though there tends to be limited brand integration at the marketing, advertising, and dealership levels. The bulk of these companies operate production facilities in multiple geographic regions.

Automobile manufacturers are subject to the demands of a vast international pool of customers. Economic conditions affect overall industry sales. Car lot traffic perks up during a boom period, and empty showrooms are commonplace during a downturn. Driving habits can change according to the economic cycle, and therefore, product lineups are always shifting, with new models, innovations, and technologies being developed to meet these demands. As a result, dealerships try to showcase a wide range of offerings, from small compact cars to sedans to light trucks and sport-utility vehicles (SUVs). Drivers’ tastes and finances are varied and often change. Thus, showrooms will often have sports, economy, family, and luxury cars on hand to meet customers’ desires. Luxury brands, with their high quality standards and advanced features, sell at premium prices and carry rich margins.

The price of gasoline (and diesel fuel) is an important factor influencing customer demand. Indeed, the rise and fall of gas prices since the 1970s has caused buyers to place varying degrees of emphasis on vehicle fuel efficiency, durability, engine power, and quality. Accordingly, market categories and product lineups evolve to meet customer preferences. Examples are crossovers, which combine the features of an SUV and the traditional car, and hybrids, utilizing the benefits of gasoline and alternative power (electric) sources. In order to stay profitable, manufacturers and dealers must properly gauge demand and carry the optimal mix of autos for each period in the business cycle.

To assist customers with purchases, and support sales, many companies offer low-rate financing programs and attractive incentives, such as discounts and cash back. Warranties, covering defects and repairs, are another means to lure drivers into showrooms. Another way to generate revenue is to provide vehicle leasing. A company can benefit from leasing via recurring payments over the life of one or more contracts and the eventual sale of the vehicle. Another good source of revenue is the sale of new or used cars to the government and to private fleet owners (e.g., rental companies).

The Automotive Industry is an important segment of the global economy, and its performance often tracks that of the broader business cycle. Investors seeking above-average price appreciation need to accurately time that cycle when taking a stake in this industry. Some of the group’s stocks offer a modest dividend to support investor loyalty. We caution that many of these equities carry low marks for Stock Price Stability and Earnings Predictability.

The Automotive Industry is comprised primarily of the world’s largest passenger automobile and light truck manufacturers. Through broad dealership networks, most members of the industry sell vehicles in the global market, covering developed and emerging countries. Automotive manufacturers offer a variety of makes and models, though there tends to be limited brand integration at the marketing, advertising, and dealership levels. The bulk of these companies operate production facilities in multiple geographic regions.

  • As increased global competition drives down profits from new car sales, the after-sales business continues to be a critical driver of growth for automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). With the increase in the average period of vehicle ownership and the recent rise in sales volumes, the future of the after-sales market appears promising.
  • However, the entry of spare parts wholesale retailers, do-it-yourself shops, independent service centers, and online merchants pose challenges for OEM after-sales. These new players capitalize on the demand for spare parts by providing customers with similar products for OEM vehicles at a lower price. As customers purchase spare parts from such dealers and bear the additional labor costs themselves, OEM parts distributions departments are left to service warranty repairs, thereby transferring costs back to the OEM. Thus, despite after-sales generating at least half of OEM profits, the contribution to bottom line revenue remains minimal.
  • Most companies have overlooked the potential of after-sales to drive financial growth. Over the years, this department has accumulated disparate and complex processes and systems that are unable to support increasing margins across the end-to-end after-sales supply chain. One way of addressing the above challenges of high spare part availability, increasing cost pressures and the need to reduce inventory is to separate the after-sales business from vehicle manufacturing. By equipping after-sales with their own process execution entity, sales, operations, and supply chain planning processes, these departments can bring in business transformation and generate new revenue growth.

Marine and Aubmersible

  • Submersible pump is a mechanical device used for transferring various types of fluid in different end use industries and is highly preferred for agricultural and industrial applications. Submersible pump is vertically submerged under the fluid to be transported (such as water etc.) and is driven by electric current, operating on the principle of centrifugal force. Various kinds of submersible pumps are available in the market, serving different purposes. In order to understand the market more comprehensively, the global submersible pump market is segmented on the basis of product type, head, and applications. By product type, the submersible pumps market is segmented into non-clog, openwell and borewell segments. Each product type is further sub-segmented and categorised on the basis of application and head type.
  • On the basis of product type, the global submersible pump market is segmented into non-clog, openwell and borewell submersible pumps. The borewell submersible pump segment has been estimated to account for 62.2% market share in terms of revenue in 2017, expanding at a healthy CAGR of 6.5% over the forecast period. The non-clog and openwell submersible pumps segments are estimated to hold a collective share of 37.8% in the global submersible pumps market by the end of 2017.
  • A submersible pump (or sub pump, electric submersible pump (ESP)) is a device which has a hermetically sealedmotor close-coupled to the pump body. The whole assembly is submerged in the fluid to be pumped. The main advantage of this type of pump is that it prevents pump cavitation, a problem associated with a high elevation difference between pump and the fluid surface. Submersible pumps push fluid to the surface as opposed to jet pumps having to pull fluids. Submersibles are more efficient than jet pumps.
  • Submersible pumps are found in many applications. Single stage pumps are used for drainage, sewage pumping, general industrial pumping and slurry pumping. They are also popular with pond filters. Multiple stage submersible pumps are typically lowered down a borehole and most typically used for residential, commercial, municipal and industrial water extraction (abstraction), water wellsand in oil wells.
  • Other uses for submersible pumps include sewage treatment plants, seawater handling, fire fighting(since it is flame retardant cable), water well and deep well drilling, offshore drilling rigs, artificial lifts, mine dewatering, and irrigation
  • Pumps in electrical hazardous locations used for combustible liquids or for water that may be contaminated with combustible liquids must be designed not to ignite the liquid or vapors.
  • Submersible pump cable are designed for use in wet ground or under water, with types specialized for pump environmental conditions.[5][6][7]
  • A submersible pump cable is a specialized product to be used for a submersible pump in a deep well, or in similarly harsh conditions. The cable needed for this type of application must be durable and reliable as the installation location and environment can be extremely restrictive as well as hostile. As such, submersible pump cable can be used in both fresh and salt water. It is also suitable for direct burial and within well castings. A submersible pump cable's area of installation is physically restrictive. Cable manufacturers must keep these factors in mind to achieve the highest possible degree of reliability. The size and shape of submersible pump cable can vary depending on the usage and preference and pumping instrument of the installer. Pump cables are made in single and multiple conductor types and may be flat or round in cross section; some types include control wires as well as power conductors for the pump motor. Conductors are often color-coded for identification and an overall cable jacket may also be color-coded.
  • Submersible pump is a mechanical device used for transferring various types of fluids in different end use industries and is highly preferred for agricultural and industrial applications. Submersible pumps are vertically submerged under the fluid to be transported (such as water etc.) and is driven by electric current, operating on the principle of centrifugal force. The global market for submersible pumps is likely to register a CAGR of 6.3% in terms of sales revenue during the forecast period (2016–2026). Among product types, the borewell submersible pumps segment, followed by the openwell submersible pumps segment is expected to witness a high growth rate over the forecast period.
  • Submersible pump system is the most effective mechanical device to pump fluid to the surface; these have a wide range of application in oil and gas plants, water treatment plants due to its high efficiency, low-cost and maintenance, and low space requirement. Submersible pumps is the most attractive product in oil field lift systems due to its high volume efficiency and resistance to pump cavitation which is caused by high elevation difference between the pump and the fluid surface. Most of the countries are going through the shortage of drinking water due to the excessive wastage of ground water, government of these countries are now concerned about recycling of waste water to meet the upcoming demand and this will further propel the demand of submersible pumps over the forecast period.

Industrial Sensors

  • In today’s high-tech factories, industrial sensors play an integral role in processing systems’ precision and reliability. But the sensors must be durable enough to perform in an industrial environment – and small enough for the very limited space on an integrated printed circuit board (PCB). An additional challenge to cope with: degradation effects, for instance, in light barriers.
  • As the manufacturing world becomes more and more automated, industrial sensors have become the key to increasing both productivity and safety.
  • Industrial sensors are the eyes and ears of the new factory floor, and they come in all sizes, shapes, and technologies. The most common technologies are inductive, capacitive, photoelectric, magnetic, and ultrasonic. Each technology has unique strengths and weaknesses, so the requirements of the application itself will determine what technology should be used. This article is focused on photoelectric sensors and defines what they are, their advantages and some basic modes of operation.
  • Photoelectric sensors are readily present in everyday life. They help safely control the opening and closing of garage doors, turn on sink faucets with the wave of a hand, control elevators, open the doors at the grocery store, detect the winning car at racing events, and so much more.
  • A photoelectric sensor is a device that detects a change in light intensity. Typically, this means either non-detection or detection of the sensor’s emitted light source. The type of light and method by which the target is detected varies depending on the sensor.
  • Photoelectric sensors are made up of a light source (LED), a receiver (phototransistor), a signal converter, and an amplifier. The phototransistor analyzes incoming light, verifies that it is from the LED, and appropriately triggers an output.
  • Sensors in industrial applications reveal the entire spectrum of parameters covered — light, radiation, pressure, flow, level, or acceleration. In this respect, sensors often form the core element in their products and solutions and have a decisive influence on the quality, economic efficiency, and safety of the application by controlling key process parameters. For this reason, we take great care in our development, production and service activities – working in accordance with certified processes and procedures. From bare sensor chips and media-isolated industrial transmitters to complex systems, we offer innovative sensor solutions and a broad spectrum of technologies across the entire value chain.


  • Transit section covers

Material Handling

  • The movement, protection, storage and control of materials and products throughout the process of their manufacture and distribution, consumption and disposal. This process involves a broad array of equipment and systems that aid in forecasting, resource allocation, production planning, flow and process management, inventory management, customer delivery, after-sales support and service, and a host of other activities and processes basic to business. Solutions include sophisticated techniques that expedite information flow, including RFID and satellite tracking systems, and the electronic transmission of order and shipping information. These innovations along with traditional material handling and logistics equipment and systems are the solutions that make manufacturing and supply chains work.

Commerce and the flow of material that sustains it are reemerging stronger than ever. According to recent data from the U.S. Department of Commerce and Bureau of Labor Statistics, material handling and logistics is one of America's largest and fastest growing industries. In fact, it's a "mega industry"—the consumption of material handling and logistics equipment and systems in America exceeds $156 billion per year, and producers employ in excess of 700,000 workers.

  • Material handling involves short-distance movement within the confines of a building or between a building and a transportation vehicle.[1] It uses a wide range of manual, semi-automated, and automated equipment and includes consideration of the protection, storage, and control of materials throughout their manufacturing, warehousing, distribution, consumption, and disposal.[2] Material handling can be used to create time and place utility through the handling, storage, and control of material, as distinct from manufacturing, which creates form utility by changing the shape, form, and makeup of material.[3]

Material handling plays an important role in manufacturing and logistics, which together represent over 20% of the U.S. economy.[4] Almost every item of physical commerce was transported on a conveyor or lift truck or other type of material handling equipment in manufacturing plants, warehouses, and retail stores.[5] While material handling is usually required as part of every production worker's job, over 650,000 people in the U.S. work as dedicated "material moving machine operators" and have a median annual wage of $31,530 (May 2012).[6] These operators use material handling equipment to transport various goods in a variety of industrial settings including moving construction materials around building sites or moving goods onto ships.



  • Material Handling can be defined as the function of moving the right material to the right place in the right time, in the right amount, in sequence, and in the right condition to minimize production cost. Also MH is the efficient short-distance movement of goods that usually takes place within the confines of a building such as a plant or a warehouse or between a building and a transportation agency.
  • The material handling industry manufactures and distributes the equipment and services required to implement material handling systems. Material handling systems range from simple pallet rack and shelving projects, to complex conveyor belt and Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS).
  • Material Handling is the field concerned with solving the pragmatic problems involving the movement, storage in a manufacturing plant or warehouse, control and protection of materials, goods and products throughout the processes of cleaning, preparation, manufacturing, distribution, consumption and disposal of all related materials, goods and their packaging. The focus of studies of Material Handling course work is on the methods, mechanical equipment, systems and related controls used to achieve these functions. The material handling industry manufactures and distributes the equipment and services required to implement material handling systems, from obtaining, locally processing and shipping raw materials to utilization of industrial feedstocks in industrial manufacturing processes. Material handling systems range from simple pallet rack and shelving projects, to complex conveyor belt and Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems; from mining and drilling equipment to custom built barley malt drying rooms in breweries. Material handling can also consist of sorting and picking, as well as automatic guided vehicles.
  • The material handling industry is responsible for how these products are stored, protected and moved from one point in the supply chain to the next, all the way to your local store or doorstep. As products are shipped across the globe, one industry is responsible for the safe delivery of nearly every type of material, product and consumable. The material handling industry is one of America’s largest industries, and it is growing fast as companies are learning how to produce their products quicker and in greater quantities. The material handling industry is powered by a large variety of equipment to power the supply process. Storage equipment, lifting equipment, conveyor belts, and information technology are all utilized to keep the material handling industry functioning and constantly evolving. Material handling equipment can be divided into four different categories: handling and storage equipment, engineering systems, industrial transportation, and bulk material handling. It is important to almost every other industry and the entire global economy that the material handling process works properly. If the material handling industry just stopped working, it would cause a crisis worldwide. Thankfully, the material handling industry is always becoming more and more efficient at getting products to their destination as quickly as possible. New technologies are presenting possibilities that were never available before, making the material handing industry a profitable opportunity for employment as the industry prepares for the challenges of today and the future. The material handling industry has opportunities for those with expertise in engineering, production and operations, manufacturing, administration, logistics, inventory control, supply chain management, systems integration, marketing and sales, information technology, customer services, and facility design.
  • Materials handling, the movement of raw goods from their native site to the point of use in manufacturing, their subsequent manipulation in production processes, and the transfer of finished products from factories and their distribution to users or sales outlets